Chief Editor: Dr. William G. Borges, INTI University College

This journal serves as a channel of expression for knowledge workers, students, faculty members and others in Malaysian and overseas institutions. Our goal is to provide a means of scholarly and creative expression for researchers and thinkers in all academic fields—including the sciences, the social sciences and humanities, engineering, business and economics, computer science and information technology, and languages and liberal arts.


We welcome contributors at all levels of research sophistication, especially those who seek a broad audience for their ideas and insights.


Each manuscript submitted to the INTI Journal is reviewed by one or more subject specialists and by an English editor.